Performance of a hot water solar collector system has been investigated and assessed in this work. Solar energy is one of the essential natural energy sources that can be used to provide hot water for daily use in sustainable buildings. A mobile solar collector has been designed and built to assess the hot water solar collector system in different regions of Iraq. A flat plate solar collector with a helical coil heat exchanger has been used in this study. The average solar radiation has been predicted and measured. The results revealed that there is high performance of the solar water collector panel to produce hot water for buildings in Iraq. The maximum outlet temperature of the hot water of 54 ± 0.1 oC was recorded at the shell flow rate of 4 l/min and coil flow rate of 1 l/min. Maximum output energy of the solar collector system ranging from 13567 to 1488 ± 10.5 W/m2 was recorded at the range of ambient temperature from 10 to 49± 0.1 oC and sun intensity of 1890 W/m2. The outcome of this work is a real database which will provide a good reference for future research and energy applications in Iraq..
CCTS-based solar cells show promising performance in the realm of sunlight-based energy production in this study. Optimizing the buffer layer remains a barrier to improving the efficacy of CCTS-based solar cells. The initial structure is made up of a CCTS absorber layer, a ZnO resistive layer, an AZO transport conducting layer, and a window layer, as well as different buffer layers (CdS, ZnS, and ZnSe) to find the best buffer layer. The second structure is made up of a CCTS absorber layer, a ZnO resistive layer, an AZO transport conductive layer, a window layer, and different buffer layers (CdS, ZnS, and ZnSe) to find the best buffer layer. The second structure consists of the same layers as the first structure, minus the resistive layer ZnO, while the third structure consists of the same layers, minus the window layer AZO. The solar cell in this structure's open circuit (Voc), short circuit current (Jsc), fill factor (FF), and conversion efficiency (PCE) revealed that the first structure has good agreement, and that these buffer layers were used to investigate the effect of buffer thickness as alternative buffer layers. Among these three buffers, cadmium sulphide CdS) is preferable over Zns and ZnSe, and after improving the initial structure, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) was 13.47% for buffer Cds, 13.46%. The simulation showed that for structure MO / CCTS /(CdS)/ZnO / AZO at (3100) nm of absorber layer (CCTS), 40 nm of buffer layer (cds), 10 nm of resistive layer (ZnO), and 60 nm of AZO performs the best for (Voc = 0.573 V, Jsc = 30.344 mAcm-2, FF = 72.57 %, and PCE = 13.91%)..
The effect of ethanol on diesel engine performance using B30 fuel has been investigated, namely a mixture of 30% calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel and 70% petrodiesel. The ethanol concentration mixed to B30 was 10% and 20% vol/vol. The experiment was conducted on a single-cylinder four-stroke diesel engine with a natural air system and joined with a generator that functioned as a dynamometer. The test was applied three times to the machine for each load, involving 0, 200, 400, 600, and 800W at a constant rotation speed of 2000 rpm. The experiment reveals that the consistent engine speed method and lamp load produce the same torque (Nm) and effectiveness power (kW) between fuels, impacted by the governor's mechanism. The 20% ethanol (B30E20) has the highest effective thermal efficiency of 28.41% and effectiveness fuel consumption of 0.46 kg/kWh. The addition of 20% ethanol reduced exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons up to 0.09% and 27.33 ppm. However, there was an exhaust emissions increase of carbon dioxide up to 8.0%. The exhaust emissions increase of carbon dioxide cannot be considered as a negative consequence because it can be reused (consumption) in the photosynthesis process raw material biofuels..