Urban and rural mixed organic waste, including perishable waste and partial agricultural waste, are high yield, complex composition, high water content and nutrient content. Aerobic fermentation is one of the key technologies for the utilization of this resource, but the application is limited in China due to the low conversion efficiency and unknown risk of by-products. Therefore, in view of the bottleneck problem of aerobic fermentation of organic waste in China, the resource utilization technologies of urban and rural mixed organic waste were compared and analyzed, the advantages of aerobic fermentation in the treatment of organic solid waste was clarified, the transformation mode of organic matter in the process of aerobic fermentation was deeply analyzed, and the main problems faced by aerobic fermentation in the treatment of organic waste was revealed. Accordingly, the main factors affecting the efficient stabilization and resource utilization of aerobic fermentation products was further identified. The concept of rapid stabilization and resource utilization of urban and rural mixed organic waste, named as detecting the regulation principle of microbial metabolic network during organic waste aerobic fermentation, was proposed. Meanwhile, intelligent integrated rapid stabilization technology and equipment (intelligent screen display-online monitoring-feedback control) was also developed overcome the technology of directional humification and pollution enhancement in microbial factory, the technology of deep processing-quality evaluation- attribute complementary of resource products to utilize resource products by their characteristics was constructed. In order to provide technical support for the resource treatment of urban and rural mixed organic waste in China, researches and demonstration projects will be carried out to meet the major needs of national science and technology, such as in-situ reduction of organic waste by aerobic fermentation, pollution control in the process, and resource utilization of the end products.