The construction industry has long been considered as a high-risk one. Therefore, the construction industry is still in the early stages of developing safety performance. It is argued that to improve safety performance continuously and consistently, it is necessary to identify aspects that affect safety performance. In this regard, a safety culture is a critical instrument for maintaining excellent safety performance, especially in reducing accidents and unwanted behavior. However, there is some empirical evidence in the literature that associates safe-ty culture with actual safety performance, such as unsafe or undesirable employee behavior in the construction industry. This study proposed a framework in which safety culture factors directly influence employee safety performance in terms of violation behavior and employee misconduct. It also suggests that security compliance mediates the link between security culture factors and employee security performance. This investigation was conducted in Yemen. The target group is construction companies listed in the Yemeni Ministry of Labor and Highways. The survey-based method was collected from 248 workers and supervisors based on cutting-edge construction by construction companies in Yemen. In this study, we used the SmartPLS technique. This study showed that safety management systems, safety training, workplace pressure, and personal safety attitudes directly and negatively impact employee safety performance in terms of violation behavior and employee misconduct. In addition, the study found that safety compliance mediated the link between managerial engagement, safety management system, workplace impact, and personal safety perceptions, and employee safety performance in terms of employee violation and misconduct.