Construction industry has widely recognized as a high-risk industry; however, the construction industry is still in its early stages of safety performance development. It is necessary to identify the aspects that impact safety performance. In this regard, safety culture is viewed as a critical instrument for maintaining excellent safety performance, particularly in terms of decreasing accidents and unwanted behavior. However, there is few empirical evidence in the literature that relates safety culture to real safety performance, such as unsafe or undesirable behaviors of employees in the construction industry. To fill this gap, this study proposed a structural framework in which safety culture factors directly influence personnel safety compliance. The targeted population were the construction firms in Yemen listed in the Ministry of Works and Highways. The survey-based method was used to collect data from 248 of front-line construction site-based workers and supervisors at Yemeni construction firms. PLS technique was employed in this study. This study found that safety management systems, safety training, workplace pressure, and personal safety attitude directly and negatively im-pact the personnel safety performance in terms of violations and personnel error behavior.